Inactivation of microbes using EO water

As shown in Table 1, many studies have been conducted in evaluating the bactericidal activity of EO water. EO water possess antimicrobial activity on a variety of micro- organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Kiura et al., 2002; Vorobjeva et al., 2003), Staphylococcus aureus (Park et al., 2002b; Vorobjeva et al., 2003), S. epidermidis, E. coli O157:H7 (Kim et al., 2000a, 2000b; Park, Hung, & Chung, 2004; Venkitanarayanan et al., 1999b), Salmonella Enteriti- dis (Venkitanarayanan et al., 1999b), Salmonella Typhimu-

rium (Fabrizio & Cutter, 2003), Bacillus cereus (Len, Hung, Erickson, & Kim, 2000; Sakashita, Iwasawa, & Nakamura, 2002; Vorobjeva et al., 2003), Listeria monocytogenes (Fab- rizio & Cutter, 2003; Park et al., 2004; Vorobjeva et al., 2003), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Iwasawa & Nakamura, 1993), Campylobacter jejuni (Park et al., 2002a), Enterobac- ter aerogenes (Park et al., 2002b) and Vibrio parahaemolyt- icus (Huang et al., 2006a; Kimura et al., 2006). EO water can also reduce germination of many fungal species, such as Alternaria spp., Bortrytis spp., Cladosporium spp., Col- letotrichum spp., Curvularia lunata, Didymella bryonaie, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium spp., Helminthosporium spp., Pestalotia spp., Phomopsis longicolla, Rhodosporidium toru- loides, Stagonospora nodorum, Thielaviopsis basicola, Trich- oderma spirale, Acidovorax avenae subsp., Erwinia chrysanthemi, Pantoea ananatis, Pseudomonas syringae (Buck, Iersel, Oetting, & Hung, 2002), Aspergillus spp. (Buck et al., 2002; Suzuki et al., 2002b), Botryosphaeria berengeriana (Al-Haq et al., 2002), Monilinia fructicola (Al-Haq et al., 2001; Buck et al., 2002), Penicillium expan- sum (Okull & Laborde, 2004) and Tilletia indica (Bonde et al., 1999).

In general, bacteria generally grow in a pH range of 4–9. Aerobic bacteria grow mostly at ORP range +200 to 800 mV, while anaerobic bacteria grow well at